See also : forgery. Thick volume s are especially prone to this problem, which may be due in part to the force of gravity acting on the section s as the book sits upright on the shelf. See also : rounding. As a practical matter, the number of nonrelevant items in a given database is often difficult if not impossible to ascertain, except in very small databases, so this measure remains largely conceptual. See also : precision and recall. Click here to view a 19th-century example in black morocco with four wide false bands made of onlaid leather in red and green Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Compare with half bands. In library cataloging , the correct date is interpolated in square bracket s following the incorrect date in the bibliographic description example : . An example in fiction is Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe , presented as a factual autobiography.
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre is an example of a film that claims to be based on fact, but is fictional. Blurring the line separating fact from fiction is a technique often used in the fantasy , mystery , and horror genre s to heighten the feeling of wonder, suspense, or fear in the reader or viewer. Compare with mockumentary. For example, a search on the keyword "aids" will retrieve records for item s about HIV infection and also items about hearing aids , teaching aids , band-aids , etc.
To avoid this problem, a qualifier such as "disease" must be added to the search statement to make retrieval more precise. Synonymous with false combination. See also : semantic factoring. Click here to see an example for the Ptolemaic Dynasty of ancient Egypt and here to see the family tree of Ludwig van Beethoven. The four corner s were often tooled in matching quarter-fans. Click here to see a 17th-century Italian example Princeton University Library and here to see a 19th-century example on an early 16th-century Bible Special Collections , Glasgow University Library, Du-d.
To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "fan" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. See also : wheel binding.
Electric fans hasten drying by increasing air circulation. Former Yale University conservator Jane Greenfield recommends supporting the book block to the height of the squares , if possible, by resting it on one or more thin, pie-shaped pieces of styrofoam The Care of Fine Books , Nick Lyons Books, Fan drying will reduce some of the swelling caused by exposure to water but does not return the book to its former condition. Vacuum freeze drying must be used for books printed on coated paper s that fuse when wet.
To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "fanfare" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Also refers to genre fiction in which the writer's imagination is not constrained by the limitations of conventional reality. See also : science fiction and utopia. When published on the Web , such a publication may be called a fansite see StalloneZone.
Mark, Yudel Der yidisher poyps yiddishbookcenter. A play in three scenes, with thirteen characters. The flesh side is usually whiter and softer in texture than the hair side , except in Insular manuscript s made from skins not scraped down as far, so that both sides retain a nap similar to suede. Korolenko, Vladimir Galaktionovich Keler-kinder yiddishbookcenter. He hides behind a newspaper but is recognized by an acquaintance who gives him no peace.
See also : zine. FAQ F requently A sked Q uestions, a text file available online or in print , containing answers to commonly asked questions about a specific topic , that may serve as a mini-help file for inexperienced users of a computer system or software program. Usually maintained by one or more persons who have an active interest in the subject. Farce bears the same relationship to "high" comedy as melodrama to tragedy. For other examples, try Wikipedia. Also used in the context of vaudeville and musical theater to indicate a disjointed medley of tunes, dramatic skits, and comedy routines.
Usually issued in paper wrappers , fascicles may eventually be bound together in correct sequence to form a complete volume or uniform set of volumes example : Middle English Dictionary , published by the University of Michigan Press. They differ from part s in being temporary rather than permanent. Abbreviated fasc. Synonymous with fascicule and fasciculus. Designed as an improvement on the guard book.
Also used synonymously with fascicle. Although the live models who appear in fashion photographs are sometimes well-known to the public, the category is distinct from glamour photograph s intended primarily to display the physical attractiveness of the subject and from publicity photograph s made for promotional purposes click here to see an example, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Fashion plate s first appeared in the late 18th century and were very popular from the s onward, particularly in women's magazine s.
Click here to see a hand-colored engraving from Godey's Lady's Book , courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution. To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Compare with fashion print. Compare with fashion plate. The earliest fasteners were wrapping bands, thong s, and ties made of fabric or leather.
Metal clasp s eventually replaced leather strap -and-pin fittings on medieval manuscript book s. Their use helped prevent the parchment or vellum leaves from cockling in response to changes in temperature and humidity. As paper replaced parchment in the 16th century, the use of fastenings declined. Today, they are seen mainly on portfolio s and on personal diaries and album s. The opposite of lean matter. See also : dummy book. The method requires a fax machine at the each location sending and receiving , consisting of a scanner , printer , and modem with a dedicated line and fax number.
Transmission speed depends on the standard of the sending machine, with Group 3 bit s per second the most common. Click here to learn more about fax, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. FDsys In , the U. FDsys provides free online access to official publication s from all three branches of the U. Federal Government.
Click here to connect to the FDsys homepage. In magazines, the article illustrated on the front cover is called the cover story.
Other feature stories in the same issue may also be noted on the front cover, often by subject. Variable in length, feature film s are at least 40 minutes long, with 90 minutes the norm. Libraries that circulate feature films usually make them available on videocassette or DVD. Compare with documentary and short film. See also : television feature. Federal Communications Commission FCC Established by the Communications Act of to succeed the Federal Radio Commission, the FCC is charged with regulating all non-federal government use of the radio spectrum including radio and television broadcast ing , and all interstate telecommunications wire, satellite, and cable , as well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States.
No more than three Commissioners may be members of the same political party, and commissioners are barred from holding a financial interest in any FCC-related business.
Click here to connect to the FCC homepage. Government Printing Office GPO and contractors to distribute without charge copies of federal government documents to designated depository libraries in the United States and its territories that agree to provide unrestricted access and professional assistance at no charge to the user.
There are currently about 1, depository libraries , some receiving less than the full complement of available publication s. Click here to connect to the FDLP homepage. See also : state plan. The metasearch engines developed in the second half of the s were capable of searching only publicly accessible Web site s, but the 21st century has seen a new generation of federated search engine s designed to search local and remote library catalog s, subscription database s, and digital repositories as well as Web site s, using standardized protocol s, such as Z Some federated search systems provide deduping and rank results by relevance or allow sorting by other criteria.
Limiting , advanced search mode s, clustering, and RSS feeds or search alerts may also be available. The amount may be fixed, depending on type of service, or variable, depending on the amount of time required to perform the service. In some libraries , document delivery service is fee-based. Fees may also be charged for the use of item s in rental collection s, but for the most part, libraries in the United States are committed to offering basic services at no charge to their clientele.
Persons who live outside a public library 's service area, or who are not faculty or students entitled to use the resources and services of an academic library , may be charged a fee for limited borrowing privileges. See also : copyright fee. In most academic and public libraries in the United States, fee -based services, provided on a cost-recovery basis, are limited to document delivery and rental collection s. Synonymous with fee-for-service. See also : fee-or-free.
Libraries rely on user survey s and the suggestion box to obtain feedback from patron s. In the United States, most libraries limit fee-for-service to document delivery , interlibrary loan when the lender charges, and rental collection s. Libraries may also charge users to print from computer workstation s, and in most libraries, photocopier s and reader-printer machines are coin-operated.
The term is also applied to the stipend itself and, in some cases, to the foundation providing it.
Senior fellowships are awarded to scholars who are well-established in their field s, junior fellowships to scholars at earlier stages of their careers. A teaching fellowship involves some classroom responsibilities. Click here to learn about fellowships offered at the Huntington Library in California and here to search a database of internship s and fellowships maintained by the Library of Congress.
FTF hosts an electronic mailing list and publishes the quarterly newsletter Women in Libraries. Click here to connect to the FTF homepage. Click here to see an archaeological example and here to see a generalized fence diagram of the Floridan Aquifer System, courtesy of the U. Geological Survey.