In particular, the development of Vietnam architecture is different in each period of history.
At that time, wood was used to build house for protecting people from wild animal. They designed their house in two shapes: one was boat formed and another different was tortoise — shell shaped. It was influenced by Buddhism and served Buddhism. In , there were pagodas built during King Ly Thai Tong empire. The popular works under Tran Dynasty were pagoda, house, temple, and citadel. Interior garden and yard played an important part in total structure complex.
It expresses universe opinion. The royal palace structure was designed with upper - floors and systems of consecutive corridors in an open-air space that was suitable for tropical climate.
Vietnam architecture is a composition of both Asian and European style. Its history can be divided into highlight stages, namely ancient architecture, colonial . When talking about the ancient architecture of Vietnam, many people think it is a reproduction of Chinese architecture. But in fact traditional Vietnam architecture.
Under King Le reign, the orthodox architecture was royal palace and royal tomb. Hue city became the capital under Nguyen Dynasty so the development in the North was slowed down. In contrast, the project in Hue were developed, especially, garden - house complex. Whilst walking around Vietnam, you may have to stop when suddenly being confronted with a typically French building. Architecturally, the French left their mark throughout Vietnam — all of the big cities have a number of stately structures that date from colonial times and, in many cases, they carry on serving the same function as they did under the French.
This kind of architecture was developed in parallel with the process of colonial exploitation of the colonialism. While many of the old French residences have crumbled badly, others have been renovated and given a new lease on life as upper crust hotels full of French trimmings or restaurants.
Over 60 cargo ships embarked from the port of Rostock between and carrying more than 5, tons of supplies and equipment to a total value of In , the cement factory resumed operation fig. Equipped with Germany technology that decreased the need for heavy manual labor, the repaired and modernized plant had the capacity to produce up to 20, tons of Mstrength cement per year—a twofold increase over earlier productions levels with a lower cement grade of M One of the main tasks of the master plan was to build an integrated residential neighborhood, named Quang Trung after an eighteenth century emperor and military commander, in the center of the city between areas of industry, allowing for easy access to the workplace by bicycle or on foot.
By the end of the project in , technicians and laborers had completed only 22 of the targeted blocks, housing close to 9, workers and cadres. In interviews, gdr engineers reflected on the ambivalence that many Vietnamese residents expressed toward the socialist, high-rise block housing. In most cases, practical concerns needed to take precedence over cultural preferences, according to one architect, who explained the spatial, material and temporal constraints they faced in trying to build an urban environment while managing the desires of labor migrants. Like integrated residential estates in East Germany and elsewhere, convenient and accessible amenities were made available on site or adjacent to the neighborhood, including a trade center for purchasing foodstuffs and household goods, a central market, a youth center, daycare facilities and a primary school.
East German designers similarly emphasized green spaces of leisure, including parks, playgrounds, and the refurbished stadium. Yet a lack of time and severe financial constraints in the postwar city made such outings unlikely. Broad tree-lined avenues with streetlights and a fountain that showcased German technology and the promise of socialist prosperity exemplified this fundamental disconnect between a celebrated ideal and a mundane reality: after gdr experts departed, the lights went out and water ceased to flow as infrastructure began to break down fig.
One of the key objectives of socialist urbanization was to produce a skilled labor force that could work and take recreation on a daily basis in modern factories and living environments. The development of a vocational training infrastructure to acquire the technical skills required to improve industrial productivity was deemed essential to this project. Construction on the Vietnamese—German Vocational School began in In , the school opened to its first cohort of students.
The focus was on vocational training in the field of construction. It was a two-year program that utilized both classroom and hands-on learning in the workshops we built. The school would produce a qualified, experienced workforce that included mechanics, bricklayers, concrete workers, carpenters, welders and electricians who could work in the factories that had been built and restored by the gdr and participate in the larger project of socialist nation building. The multi-building campus had to be designed, built and properly equipped. Wood furniture, such as desks and chairs, could be produced in Vinh in collaboration with a German master woodworker.
Other supplies, from blackboards to workshop tools and machinery, had to be imported.
Today, the socialist palimpsest in Vinh finds its socio-historical and affective meaning not only in the architecture of the built environment, that is, in the material structures themselves. Meaning is also constituted through the relationship between the buildings and the sheer quantities of imported goods and technologies that were necessary to rebuild the city. Many of these objects remain in circulation and use today, often in unpredictable ways as they travel between gift and commodity economies.
Some of these transformations have threatened social identity and obliterated historical memory from urban landscapes as in the case of the Palast der Republik in former East Berlin , while others have reinscribed the past in new and creative ways, such as the international Art Zone in Beijing, a refurbished industrial complex built by East Germany in the s. The vocational school, for example, is still in operation today, though it has been upgraded to the level of a college, giving it more latitude to expand its curriculum.
As the college struggles to achieve economic self-sufficiency with diminishing state subsidies, it has recently turned to training students to go overseas as part of a burgeoning, profitable particularly for intermediaries export labor industry. While the name of the school remains the same, continuing to mark the affective ties between Vietnam and East Germany, the Vietnam—Poland Friendship Hospital, on the other hand, removed the reference to Poland when it changed its name in to the General Friendship Hospital.
While the crumbling blocks are irreparably outdated a common complaint is that they are too small , they still hold important meaning for inhabitants, particularly for those who helped to build them. Yet the facility was in dire need of modernization to comply with iso quality requirements. Managers complained that they had received obsolete, second-hand equipment from the gdr.
This was carried out in a politically shrewd move to swiftly align the province with the newly unified government in order to assuage anxiety about loans owed to the gdr which were subsequently converted to new aid programs. From French colonial modernism to Soviet, Polish and East German socialist internationalism to Chinese state capitalism, international interventions in the city have given shape to a unique palimpsest of architecture based on divergent ideologies and urban design practices closely tied to changes in political economy, forms of diplomacy and the vibrant social life of the city.
Swett , S. Jonathan Wiesen and Jonathan R. Zatlin eds. Logan , Hanoi: Biography of a City , op. Historical sites, including pagodas, were spared. Accessed 15 December And by , this number reached 60 14 central plants and 46 provincial enterprises. Imperial courts across Asia imported Vietnamese ceramics. Following closely to the curriculum of Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Paris , oil painting was first introduced to students as a completely new medium. Similarly, en plein air was another major practice instituted in EBAI's curriculum. As noted by art historian Nora Taylor,.
Needless to say he earned quite a few giggles and embarrassed glances from his subjects. The French did and so did To Ngoc Van. This example quoted by Taylor, argues that the tendency of idealization, we see in To Nga Van's painting reflects a distancing and detachment with the subject matter, a result of artist's attempt to emulate their French teachers inclusive of whatever they do. Other than oil medium and en plein air painting method, significant assimilation and adaption of local culture were encouraged by Victor Tardieu and his successor Joseph Imguimberty.
Joseph Imguimberty was fascinated by the lacquered cultural objects and architecture fixtures after visiting the Temple of Literature in Hanoi. Making lacquer painting takes several months, using resin from Son tree taken from the plantation from Son Mai region, numerous layers of application are applied to acquire the desired colour and effects.
airtec.gr/images/ubicacion-de/256-iphone-te.php Like lacquer painting, silk painting was much encouraged for exploration in the school. Different from similar practice of silk painting in China and Japan, an intensifying of cultural transfer was observed in Vietnamese silk painting, artist like Nguyen Phan Chan blended western composition principle with eastern tradition like calligraphy and brush paintings. Victor Tardieu passed away in and he was took after by Evariste Jonchere. A bombing of Hanoi that was intended for Japanese target destroyed part of the EBAI painting department in , resulting the sculpture department to be moved to Son Tay; Architecture and sculpture department to Dalat while applied arts went to Phu Ly.
Resistance war uproar marks the official close down of EBAI in However, artist were sympathetic of the Viet Minh and decided to leave Hanoi to join the resistance movement against French in the Hills of Tay Bac.
When Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam's independence on 2 September , Vietnamese artist begin to resist the influence of romantic realism, tendency for nostalgia past and melancholic dreams. To Ngoc Van begin teaching resistance art classes in the Northern zone during the war with the French. This includes setting up the "School of Fine Arts in the Resistance Zone", and combating against decadent art being scientific, national and popular, art have to abandon religion, mythical and idealists theme, focusing solely on the inspiration and needs of the revolution and being appealing and educational to a majority of people.
First National Art Exhibition in the Democratic Republic of Vietna in , after the victory at Dien Bein Phu where Meeting Gap Nhau by Mai Van Hien was praised as the ideal painting that illustrates the idea of community and solidarity between the soldiers and the common people.
In a Painting Exhibition that in happened December 10, , Ho Chi Minh sent a message to the artists that "you, in the artistic field, have your own responsibilities - to serve the resistance, the Fatherland and the people, first and foremost the workers, peasants and soldiers," . However, various debates erupted in Hanoi on the role of artists in Society in , during the first meeting of the writers and artist associations, members demanded for greater freedom of expression which went against what Ho Chi Minh had earlier laid down.
Two art and literature journals Nhan Van humanism and Gia Pham Art Works that supported the argument were subsequently banned. These members were required to be members of the association if they wished their works to be exhibited or sold. There were no private galleries where artists can displayed their work formally. Eventually, this association was governed with official rules and regulations, members are obligated to hold one exhibition at local level annually and another at national level every 5 years.
Non members were not considered artist, hence they have no opportunity to display any form of art publicly. Realist style, which corresponded with Northern artists initial aspirations, was vital in the early days of revolution, however, due to the strict constraints by the DVR regime and decreasing subsidies, realist trend reached an apex in the 60s.
It was a period to essentially erase the impact and influence of the French. It is a politically correct painting, filled with characteristic that fulfills the national painting. Another theme commonly captured by artist was the landscape around Viet Bac. Likely inspired by the Soviet and Communist Chinese, they carried a political intention. Following strictly to the culture of new Vietnam in Ho Chi Minh's concept, was to "stimulate intellectual and artistic creativity for art and cultural development". Vietnam was divided at the 17 parallel after the Geneva Conference in separating themselves into the Soviet and Chinese supported North against the Southern Republic reinforced by the United States of America.
They enjoyed more freedom in the subject matters and exhibited freely until In , the first international Exhibition of Fine Arts of Saigon was held with 21 countries participating it. Southern artist encountered abstract painting for the first time. Following up, a second exhibition was planned for , but unfortunately cancelled due to the increase intensity of the war. Between s - 70s artists in Saigon experimented abstraction and other contemporary expressions.
As noted by Vietnamese art historian Hyunh-Beattie, Southern artists did not readily accepted and took in American culture, which they deem as inferior to the French. Although Americans were heavily involved in Saigon, Beattie argues that little had influenced on the art scene in republic. After the reunification of Vietnam , southern artists were sent for re-education in The economic reforms allowed artists a greater outlet for creative expressions.
However, Nguyen Quan who was elected into the executive committee of Vietnam Association of Fine Arts and holding position as the chief editor of the Association's Magazine My Thuat Fine Arts was removed from his position after organizing a workshop with 30 artist in Dai Lai, North of Hanoi in Nowadays, besides working with traditional material like oil, acrylic, lacquer on wood, the younger generation of Vietnamese artists have become very active in involving different forms of arts, such as installation, performance and video art with many of them attaining international recognition for their artworks and exhibitions worldwide.
RMIT University Vietnam art collection is one of the most prestigious collections of contemporary Vietnamese art in the world. This collection is not only historically important, but one that will continue to grow the understanding of Vietnamese culture for generations to come.
The Vietnamese artists in the collection range from established and mid-career artists, whose works feature in significant exhibitions and notable private collections and public institutions worldwide, to young emerging artists who continue to tackle issues with fresh and new interpretations.